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The Kündekari technique, whose early examples in Islamic art are seen in the 12th century in Egypt, Aleppo and in Anatolia, is thought to have developed simultaneously in three centres.

The engraving technique used in wood works by Seljuks left its place to the wood crossing technique (Kündekari) in the Ottoman era.

Artworks made with this technique were created by interweaving various little geometric pieces together and have survived the effects of time and nature, reaching our day without any deformations.

As wood saps, grains of these pieces in the wood crossing technique were put opposite to each other and one protects the other from the effect of moist and heat, the examples could preserve their gorgeous appearances throughout centuries.

This technique is divided into two as 'Imitation Kündekari' and 'Original Kündekari' according to the making.

Original Kündekari:

The Kündekari technique is performed by the glue- and nail-free interviewing wooden pieces formerly cut in octagonal, hexagonal, crescent, triangular and rectangular shapes and grooved timber joints specifically designed for the purpose of tying these pieces together.

Since the pieces cross each other, block detachment and disruption do not occur in case of dry fragmentation of wood. Generally used in the side backboards of mimbars, this technique is quite important in terms of durability.

At the same time, a carcass is placed underneath the borders of kündekari for additional durability.  

Imitation Kündekari;

Imitation kündekari can be divided into two groups depending on the making.

a - Batten and Relief Kündekari

It is created by bringing separate wooden blocks together side by side.
These blocks are in the form of crescents, octagons and lozenges.
Their upper sides are trimmed with embossed motifs.
Beams forming the geometric cage are nailed into the joints of these blocks.
In appearance, it is hard to distinguish it from original Kündekari.
Nails are only used in the joining of beams.

b – Wholly Batten and Sealed Kündekari

On the top of wooden blocks, timber joists forming the geometric cage are nailed with octagons, crescents and diamonds.

The following are some of the mosques containing examples of mimbars created with the Kündekari technique during the Seljuk and Beyliks Periods.

 Konya Alaaddin Mosque (1155/56)
 Aksaray Ulu Mosque (1408)
 Malatya Ulu Mosque (1224)
 Siirt Ulu Mosque (13.yy) 
 Birgi Ulu Mosque (1312)
 Ivaz Paşa Mosque (Manisa) (1487)



For more information on the wood techniques
    M.Asarcıklı-H.Keskin, Ahşap Süsleme Teknikleri, Gazi k.evi, Ankara 2002
     M.Ülker, Geleneksel Türk Sanatında Oyma Eserler, Türkiyemiz Dergisi,S.73,1994
     E.Yücel, Selçuklu Ağaç İşçiliği, Sanat Dünyamız, S.4, İstanbul 1975 
     Gönül Öney, Anadolu Selçuklu ve Beylikler Devri Ahşap Teknikleri, Sanat Tarihi Yıllığı III,1969
     B.Ögel, Selçuklu Devri Anadolu Ağaç İşçiliği Hakkında Notlar, Yıllık Araştırmalar Dergisi I,1956
     S.Ögel, Anadolu Ağaç Oymacılığında Mail Kesim, Sanat Tarihi Yıllığı I,1964
     S.Ögel, Ortaçağ Çevresinde Anadolu Selçuklu Sanatı, T.T.K yayını 19.seri, Ankara 1972
     Gönül Öney, Anadolu Selçuklu Mimarisinde Süsleme ve El Sanatları, İş Bankası Kültür Yayını:185,Ankara 1978
     S.Mülayim,Anadolu Türk Mimarisinde Geometrik Süslemeler (Selçuklu Çağı), Kültür Bakanlığı:503, Ankara 1982
    Gönül Öney, Ankara’da Türk Devri Yapıları, D.T.C.F.yayınları 209, Ankara 1971
    Orhan Aslanapa, Minber, İslam Ansiklopedisi,C.VIII      
    M.Z.Oral, Anadolu’da Sanat Değeri Olan Ahşap Minberler, Kitabeleri ve Tarihçeleri, Vakıflar Dergisi V,1962
    Y.Önge-İ.Ateş-S.Bayram, Divriği Ulu Camisi ve Darüşşifası, Vakıflar Gn.Md.lüğü,Ank.1978

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