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Turks’ intense use of embroidery for decoration and appearance purposes started with the transition of the Ottomans to permanent settlement. 

Turkish hand embroidery reached its pride between the 16th Century and the second half of the 19th Century (Ottoman Period).

Turkish embroidery was produced in two groups, namely crown embroidery and popular embroidery.

Popular Embroidery is shaped around people’s own traditions, customs and aspirations, urban and crown embroidery is based on certain essentials embraced by a higher class.

Embroidery patterns in ostentatious weavings and clothing used by the royalty and administrators were custom-drawn on the basis of the current fashion or needs.

Ottoman crown and urban embroidery was applied to various materials and clothes.

Crown embroidery was generally prepared at the Palace’s workshops. According to relevant resources, these embroidery works were produced by male professional embroidery artists. Generally processed with golden and silver wires, these embroidery works were products of teamwork. 

At times, crown embroidery was commissioned to workshops outside the Palace. The patterns of such embroidery works were also drawn and coloured by the Palace’s own artists. Specifically produced by women, these were fine works processed with silk thread.

The motif tradition of the Palace was carried to villages and thus, popularized by women of royalty married to high-rank officials. 

For more information on the history and techniques of embroidery, see. Embroidery






Source: Oya Sipahioğlu, Tire Müzesinde Bulunan İşlemelerin Teknik ve Sanatsal Açıdan İncelenmesi ve Yeni Tasarımlar, DEÜ Sosyal Bilimler Ens. Sanatta Yeterlilik Tezi, İzmir, 1997

     Aydın Uğurlu, Osmanlı Dokumalarında Süs ve İhtişam, İlgi, S.76, 1994

     Ayten Sürür, Türk işleme Sanatı, Akbank 1976
     Ayten Sürür,
Türk işlemelerinde Bölge Özellikleri,Türkiyemiz, Y.5, S.14, 1971

     Burton Berry, Old Turkish Towels, 1938

     Celal Arseven, Sanat Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul 1950

     Emin Cenkmen, Osmanlı Sarayı ve Kıyafetleri, İstanbul, 1943

     G.Von Palotay, Turkish Embroideries, London 1954

     H.Züber, Türk Süsleme Sanatları, T.İş Bankası, Ankara 1971

     Kenan Özbel, Eski El İşlemeleri, El Sanatları 4, Ankara 1949 

     M.Celal Lampe, Türk İşlemeleri, İstanbul 1939

     Macide Gönül, Topkapı Sarayı Kolleksiyonundan Bazı Türk İşlemeleri, İstanbul 1969

     Macide Gönül, Türk El İşleri Sanatı, (16-19.yy), Ankara , 1973

     Nezahat Turkan, Gümüş Isıltılı Telkırma / Silver Strip Embroidery, Skylife, Eylül 2003
     Nurhayat Berker
, İşlemeler, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 1981

     Nurhayat Berker-Yusuf Durul, Türk İşlemelerinden Örnekler, Ak Yayınları, 1971

     Örcün Barışta, Osmanlı İmparatorluk Dönemi Türk İşlemeleri, Osmanlı Kültür ve Sanat, Ankara 1999

     Örcün Barışta, Türk İşleme Sanatı Tarihi,

     Örcün Barışta, Özel Müzelerimiz ve Kolleksiyonlarımız II, Sanat Dünyamız 1984

     Örcün Barışta, Türk İşlemelerinde Teknikler, Ankara 1978

     Pauline Johlnstone,Turkish Embroidery, Victoria Albert Museum 1985

     Selma Delibaş, Türk İşlemeleri, Sanat, S.7, 1982

     Semiha Başbuğ, Türk işlemeleri, İstanbul, 1964

     Sevim Fenercioğlu, Türk İşlemelerinde Motifler, Ankara

     Ulla Ther, 16-20 yy. Gezi Edebiyatında Yerli Türk İşlemeleri, Türkiyemiz, Y.24, S.72,1994
     Ulla Ther,
Türk İşlemeleri, Bremen, 1993

(1) Aydın Uğurlu, Orta Çağ Anadolu Dokuma Sanatı, İlgi, Y.21, S.48, 1987

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