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Ihram (ehram) Weaving

Ihram is a local type of full-length woven garment produced in the area of Erzurum and Bayburt and used by rural women to cover themselves.

Ihram woven with the bezayaği knitting technique on lower (pit) and higher workbenches operated with 2 pedals and 4 frames using woollen yarn mostly present the colours of white, which is the natural colour of sheep wool, brown, black and purple especially on the base and the colours of white, black, dark blue and green on the motifs.

Weavings are divided into two groups in terms of their composition features.

'While plain ihram' is woven in the bezayaği knitting technique,
'Floral ihram' is woven with motifs known as ‘flowers’ in between the bezayaği knitted base.  

Floral ihram is produced with three individual ornamentation features, namely 'scatter-floral', 'yollu' (sulu) and 'coating'.

In scatter-floral ihram, the motifs are scattered on the garment at equal intervals in a specific organization.
Motifs used in this type of ihram are generally small.

In Yollu (sulu) ihram, motifs are lined up in orderly lines in the direction of the weft.
Motifs used in this type of ihram are generally larger. Yollu ihram is the most popular type.

In coated ihram, the base is completely fragmented and very small motifs are used in each of these fragments.
Due to the extreme fragmentation on the base, light-coloured yarns are preferred both in motifs and on the base.

The size of ihram weaving is exactly 85x240 cm. Two pieces of ihram woven with the same width are joined together breadth-wise and sewn in the middle for use also as outwear.

In the area, fine ihram weavings are the most desirable ones.

The type of knot used on the ruptures appearing due to the fineness of the yarn during weaving is colloquially called 'bardos' and this knot is not visible on the woven surface in any way.

Formerly woven for dowries and used as outwear, ihram weaving is used today also in such home textile products as bed linens, tablecloths and pillow and cushion cases and in such outwear as skirts, jackets and waistcoats.       



Source: İsmail Öztürk-Esra Kavcı  ‘Dokumaya Giriş’, Morfil Yayınları-Akademikdizi1, 2007

İsmail Öztürk-Esra Kavcı, Beledi Ve Ehrem Dokumalarının Özellikleri Ve Günümüzde Kazandığı Yeni İşlevler, Motif Dergisi, Y.6, S.23, 2000

Kenan Özbel , Eski Türk Kumaşları, Ankara (Tarih Yok)

Mücella Kahveci, Bayburt Çevresi Ehram Dokumacılığının Çağdaşlaştırılması Ve Yeni Fonksiyonlar Kazandırılması, Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları No.1861, Ankara 1997

Mehmet Sabır, Ehram, DEÜ GSF Yayını İzmir 1984

Sevil Kişioğlu, Geleneksel El Sanatlarından İhram Ve İhramın Çağdaş Giysi Tasarımında Kullanımı, T.T.K. Basımevi, Ankara 1997

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