In the general sense, the word ‘weaving’ refers to a great number of different varieties woven with columns, looms and poles and is addressed with such classifications as plate weaving, kirkit weaving, shuttleless weaving, etc. However, ‘weaving’ has gradually become a term encompassing textile products in the form of fabrics, handkerchiefs, headscarves, tablecloths or thick rugs and covers woven by hand on shuttle looms.
Shuttle weaving is grouped under two main headings with fine, 'fabric-type weavings', formerly known in some areas as bez (cloth), woven by hand with hand-twisted yarns on various looms and 'coarse, ground-type weavings' known in some areas as savan, çul, etc.
Both fine and coarse weavings are classified in two groups, namely 'monochromatic' and 'polychromatic' weavings.
Monochromatic weavings produced with different thicknesses and yarn types at the same time are presented with different ornamentation techniques referred to with such names as 'plain, dökmeli, haneli and yollu'.
In addition to these flush-faced weavings, non-flush weavings with curved sections are known with such names as 'bürümcük, pembezar, sari kivrak (yellow curved) and melez (hybrid)'.
Monochromatic fine weavings can be grouped according to their materials (yarn combinations) and provinces of origin as follows:
Rize: combination of hemp yarn and cotton yarn, weaving known as melez.
Konya and Çorum-Kargi: cotton göynek weaving known as 'givratma'
Kastamonu: combination of flax yarn and cotton yarn, yollu weaving known as 'sari kivrak'.
Ödemiş: combination of cotton and silk, weaving known as 'pembezar'.
Muğla-Üzümlü: combination of woollen yarn and cotton yarn, weaving known as 'gastar'.
Ayancik and Ereğli in the Black Sea Region: plain flax weaving with 'Elpek cloth'.
Çaycuma and Pelemek: 'Çözme' cloth.
Denizli-Tavas: 'Nikfer cloth' cloth
İzmir, beledi weavings
Bursa and Alanya: silk
Antakya and Muğla-Yeşilyurt: silken weavings known as raw silk.
Hadim and Gündoğmuş: weavings felted after woollen weaving on çulhalik, known as 'depme'.
Tosya: internal and external belts made of angora wool.
Şirnak: weavings known as 'şal şapik' or watered woollen silk made of goat hair. (See. Şal Şapik Presentation)
Multicoloured weavings are prepared by using multi-coloured yarns with such variations as yollu (kutnu, kırkparmak, meydani, etc.) or checkered (haneli, etc.).
With an average width of 30-45 cm, these weavings are used as textile products such as headscarves, headgears (bürgü), head straps and breechcloths, as well as such home textile products as linens, handkerchiefs and tablecloths.
Yollu and checkered weavings can be grouped according the important centres as follows:
Gaziantep: cotton or cotton-silk combination giving the frontal face an atlas-like appearance, fabric weaving known as 'kutnu'.
The Black Sea: 'Makasli Keşan' breechcloths.
Urfa: weaver, cloth weavings (culha).
Karaisali-Aktaş Village: linen cloths.
Tarsus, Adana, and Karaisali: 'savan' weaving produced with coarse cotton yarns, known colloquially as tirlik.
Adana: yollu handkerchiefs.
Ereğli in the Black Sea and Bursa: handkerchiefs ornamented on both sides.
Headscarf, head straps, belts, breechcloths:
Göynük-Tarakli, Boyabat and Eflani: square garments called 'çember' (circle) with an embroidery-like appearance.
Hadim: checkered, rectangular dolama (long headscarf twisted around the head) woven in cotton, known as bürgü
Şanliurfa: headscarves known as 'yaşmak'.
Rize: striped, checkered breechcloths known as 'futa'.
Villages of Iskefiye: striped breechcloths, known colloquially as 'çubuklu'.
Beypazari: silken dolama known as 'bürgü'.
Erzurum, Artvin, Erzincan and Bayburt: woollen straps known as ihram (ehram).
Alanya: striped, silken shawls and belts specifically known as 'dede şali' (grandfather’s shawl).
In Gaziantep and Urfa, 'Aba' is embroidered with motifs known as sandikli (crate), kurbağali (frog).
Tokat and Amasya are famous for upholstery weavings used as divan, cushion or bed linens known as 'mahat' in Tokat and 'tahtaçul' in Amasya.
Products of Natural Wool:
Siirt and Bitlis are famous for blankets made specifically of pure angora wool. (See. Siirt Blankets)
Most of the aforementioned weavings have been gravitated towards different areas outside the traditional areas of use, e.g. Yeşilyurt, Üzümlü, Buldan and Beledi weavings in the Aegean Region.
The discontinuation of the weaving of 'Gürün shawls', with very few surviving examples, is a great loss for our culture.