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Macramé (Makrama)

Macramé is a type of cloth that is rectangular in its general appearance. This cloth is named differently on the basis of its area of use with such titles as 'şerbet makramasi' and 'table macramé'.

Produced with a size of 40x50 cm in the 16th Century, these works were later enlarged to 90x150 cm.

Table macramés produced with a size of 90x250 cm is called 'dolama'.

Macramés are woven from fine flax and cotton fabrics.
At each end, there is an embroidered section reaching 15-25 cm and even 40 cm in length.
Motifs used in general are multi-coloured flowers, curved branches, fruits and leaves.
In the last Centuries, landscape elements, various arms, houses, old scripts and musical instruments are also utilized.

In terms of techniques, the varieties of hesap work are muşabbak, pesend, sarma, susma, cıvan kaşı.
The ends are ornamented with crochet work in general.

In the late 18th Century and in the 19th Century, the functions of macramés shifted towards headscarves.

Handkerchief (Peşkir) 

These handkerchiefs were woven from fine flax and cotton yarns in the past as a type of rectangular embroidered weaving produced at various sizes according to their area of use.

Used to dry hands and face, these handkerchiefs resemble macramés in terms of colour, technique and composition.

Embroidered with multi-coloured flowers, curved branches, fruits and leaves, handkerchiefs are a symbol of Turkish traditions, customs and habits.

Handkerchiefs are a beautiful heritage of the Turkish bath tradition. The fabric is generally of absorbent material.

In terms of techniques, düz pesend, verev pesend, düz sarma, verev sarma, balık sırtı, gözeme ve cıvan kaşı
Flax, silken or cotton handkerchiefs are produced and decorated with two fringes out of its own yarns.  



Source:Nurhayat Berker, İşlemeler, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 1981
Örcün Barışta, Osmanlı İmparatorluk Dönemi Türk İşlemeleri, Osmanlı Kültür ve Sanat, Ankara 1999
M.Celal Lampe, Türk İşlemeleri, İstanbul 1939
Burton Berry, Old Turkish Towels, 1938
Celal Arseven, Sanat Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul 1950
G.Von Palotay, Turkish Embroideries, London 1954
Macide Gönül, Topkapı Sarayı Kolleksiyonundan Bazı Türk İşlemeleri, İstanbul 1969
Nurhayat Berker-Yusuf Durul, Türk İşlemelerinden Örnekler, Ak Yayınları, 1971
Ayten Sürür, Türk işleme Sanatı, Akbank 1976
Örcün Barışta, Özel Müzelerimiz ve Kolleksiyonlarımız II, Sanat Dünyamız 1984
Pauline Johlnstone,Turkish Embroidery, Victoria Albert Museum 1985 

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